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6IXISLANDS Group

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Ian Ramirez
Ian Ramirez

Timing Essay Design WORK


Multiple choice questions can be difficult to write, especially if you want students to go beyond recall of information, but the exams are easier to grade than essay or short-answer exams. On the other hand, multiple choice exams provide less opportunity than essay or short-answer exams for you to determine how well the students can think about the course content or use the language of the discipline in responding to questions.




Timing Essay Design



For the Morton Square residence, a drop leaf dining table with a 250-year-old slab of American Black Walnut is seamed down the center with custom-designed hinges. When one half is folded down, it becomes a side table with intersecting planes of sculptural and geometric lines.


The new design incorporates the readaptation of the 70,000 square foot main building and grounds into a boutique hotel; corporate retreat and conference center; exhibition, performance and event spaces; indoor and outdoor restaurant, bar and café; retail spaces and an outdoor amphitheater.


The South Congregational Church Rectory, designed in a neo-gothic style by Woodruff Leeming, was built in 1893 and given landmark status in 1982. As a result of a dwindling congregation, the church, chapel and rectory were converted to residential use.


Submit a brief cover letter; resume with three references; one-page personal essay; and links to a portfolio with three complete photo stories or multimedia stories and a selection of single images. Applicants should have their own camera equipment; a limited amount of pool gear is available.


Submissions will be accepted for paid internships in audience engagement, digital editing and production. These are not reporting positions. Web internships do not require a car. Submit a brief cover letter; resume with three references; one-page personal essay; and links to any online work.


Submissions will be accepted for the copy editing internship created in honor of Henry Fuhrmann, a former assistant managing editor at the Los Angeles Times and a longtime volunteer for the Asian American Journalists Assn. The internship is jointly funded by The Times and the Los Angeles chapter of AAJA. The copy editing internship does not require a car. Submit a brief cover letter; resume with three references; a school transcript (unofficial is acceptable); one-page personal essay; and links to any online work.


Asked to advise on a redesign, Morison recommended that The Times change their text typeface from a spindly nineteenth-century face to a more robust, solid design, returning to traditions of printing from the eighteenth century and before. This matched a common trend in printing tastes of the period. Morison proposed an older Monotype typeface named Plantin as a basis for the design, and Times New Roman mostly matches Plantin's dimensions. The main change was that the contrast between strokes was enhanced to give a crisper image. The new design made its debut in The Times on 3 October 1932. After one year, the design was released for commercial sale. In Times New Roman's name, Roman is a reference to the regular or roman style (sometimes also called Antiqua), the first part of the Times New Roman family to be designed. Roman type has roots in Italian printing of the late 15th and early 16th centuries, but Times New Roman's design has no connection to Rome or to the Romans.


Times New Roman has a robust colour on the page and influences of European early modern and Baroque printing.[3][a] As a typeface designed for newspaper printing, Times New Roman has a high x-height, short descenders to allow tight linespacing and a relatively condensed appearance.[5][b] (Although Hutt,[6] and most other authors, describe Times New Roman as having a higher x-height than Plantin, Tracy reports based on published Monotype dimensions that in the original small metal-type sizes the difference was not great.[7])


Morison described the companion italic as also being influenced by the typefaces created by the Didot family in the late 18th and early 19th centuries: a "rationalistic italic that owed nothing to the tradition of the sixteenth or seventeenth centuries. It has, indeed, more in common with the eighteenth century."[21][22][23] Morison had several years earlier attracted attention for promoting the radical idea that italics in book printing were too disruptive to the flow of text, and should be phased out.[24][25] He rapidly came to concede that the idea was impractical, and later wryly commented to historian Harry Carter that Times' italic "owes more to Didot than dogma."[10] Morison wrote in a personal letter of Times New Roman's mixed heritage that it "has the merit of not looking as if it had been designed by somebody in particular."[26][27][d]


During the nineteenth century, the standard roman types for general-purpose printing were "Modern" or Didone designs,[f] and these were standard in all newspaper printing.[36][37] Designs in the nineteenth-century style remain a common part of the aesthetic of newspaper printing; for example in 2017 digital typeface designer Tobias Frere-Jones wrote that he kept his Exchange family, designed for the Wall Street Journal, based on the nineteenth-century model as it "had to feel like the news."[38] According to Mosley and Williamson the modern-face used by The Times was Monotype's Series 7 or "Modern Extended", based on typefaces by Miller and Richard.[39][40]


By the 1920s, some in the publishing industry felt that the modern-face model was too spindly and high-contrast for optimal legibility at the small sizes and punishing printing techniques of newspaper printing.[41][g] In 1925, the Mergenthaler Linotype Company, Monotype's main competitor, launched a new newspaper typeface called Ionic, which became the first in a series known as the Legibility Group.[43][33] These kept to the nineteenth-century model but greatly reduced the contrast of the letterform.[44] The thinnest strokes of the letter were made thicker and strokes were kept as far apart as possible to maximise legibility. It proved extremely successful: Allen Hutt, Monotype's newspaper printing consultant in the late 1930s,[45] later noted that it "revolutionized newspaper text setting...within eighteen months it was adopted by 3,000 papers."[43] Although Times New Roman does not in any way resemble it, Walter Tracy, a prominent type designer who worked on a redesign of Times in the 1970s and wrote an analysis of its design in his book Letters of Credit (1986), commented that its arrival must at least have influenced the decision to consider a redesign.[46]


Walter Tracy and James Moran, who discussed the design's creation with Lardent in the 1960s, found that Lardent himself had little memory of exactly what material Morison gave him as a specimen to use to design the typeface, but he told Moran that he remembered working on the design from archive photographs of vintage type; he thought this was a book printed by Christophe Plantin, the sixteenth-century printer whose printing office the Plantin-Moretus Museum preserves and is named for.[49] Moran and Tracy suggested that this actually might have been the same specimen of type from the Plantin-Moretus Museum that Plantin had been based on.[50] (Although Plantin is based on a Granjon type in the collection of the Museum, that specific type was only acquired by Plantin's heirs after his death.[9]) The sharpened serifs somewhat recall Perpetua, although Morison's stated reason for them was to provide continuity with the previous Didone design and the crispness associated with the Times' printing; he also cited as a reason that sharper serifs looked better after stereotyping or printed on a rotary press.[51] Although Morison may not have literally drawn the design, his influence on its concept was sufficient that he felt he could call it "my one effort at designing a font" in a letter to Daniel Berkeley Updike, a prominent American printing historian with whom he corresponded frequently.[i] Morison's several accounts of his reasoning in designing the concept of Times New Roman were somewhat contradictory and historians of printing have suggested that in practice they were mostly composed to rationalise his pre-existing aesthetic preferences: after Morison's death Allen Hutt went so far as to describe his unsigned 1936 article on the topic[3] as "rather odd...it can only be regarded as a piece of Morisonian mystification".[52]


Lardent's original drawings are according to Rhatigan lost, but photographs exist of his drawings. Rhatigan comments that Lardent's originals show "the spirit of the final type, but not the details."[53] The design was adapted from Lardent's large drawings by the Monotype drawing office team in Salfords, Surrey, which worked out spacing and simplified some fine details.[47][54][55][56][57] Further changes were made after manufacturing began (the latter a difficult practice, since new punches and matrices had to be machined after each design change).[47]


Morison continued to develop a close connection with the Times that would last throughout his life. Morison edited the History of the Times from 1935 to 1952, and in the post-war period, at a time when Monotype effectively stopped developing new typefaces due to pressures of austerity, took a post as editor of the Times Literary Supplement which he held from 1945 to 1948.[58] Times New Roman remained Morison's only type design; he designed a type to be issued by the Bauer Type Foundry of Frankfurt but the project was abandoned due to the war. Morison told his friend Ellic Howe that the test type sent to him just before the war was sent to the government to be "analysed in order that we should know whether the Hun is hard up for lead or antimony or tin."[51] Brooke Crutchley, Printer to Cambridge University,[59] recorded in his diary a more informal discussion of the design's origins from a conversation in the late 1940s:


SM thought that Dreyfus might in time be able to design a mathematical font but he would first have to get out of his system a lot of personal ideas and searching for effects. He, Morison, had to do all this before he could design the Times font. Will Carter came in to consult M about a new type for the Radio Times, on which he had been invited to experiment. M said that the answer was really Times and that if he worked out the problem from the bottom that was the sort of answer he would get...Will has been experimenting with Plantin, but it doesn't come out well when printed from plates on rotaries, perhaps a face based on Plantin would do the trick. M said that was just how he got to Times.[51]


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